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What is In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)?
(IVF) In Vitro Fertilization, or widely known as IVF, is one of the most common methods used to help people with procreation problems have a child.
In Vitro Fertilization is an assisted reproductive technology. It is done by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm, and mixing them in a laboratory to allow them to fertilize naturally. Then the fertilized eggs are transferred to the uterus.
Who are the right candidates for IVF?
You may be the right candidate if you or your partner have:
Reduced sperm production or poor quality
if the sperm concentration in men is under below average, or the sperm movement is weak, or there are abnormalities in sperm size and shape, these problems can make it difficult for sperm to fertilize an egg.
It means that no reason for infertility has been found despite the evaluation.
A genetic turmoil
If one of the partners has the risk of passing on a genetic problem to their child, IVF may be the right choice because the embryos are tested, and only the healthy embryos which don’t contain identified problems will be transferred to the uterus.
Problems with Fallopian tubes
damage or blockage Fallopian tubes makes it difficult for an egg to be fertilized or for an embryo to move to the uterus.
If the woman ovulation is rare or absent, fewer eggs will be obtainable for fertilization.
It happens when the uterine tissue grows outside of the uterus; this problem affects the function of the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.
It is a benign tumor in the uterus wall, which is common in women age 30 and 40. Fibroid can prevent the implantation of the fertilized egg.
Fertility preservation for people who have health conditions
If you’re about to start any treatment such as radiation or chemotherapy that may harm fertility, this treatment is the right option. For women, it is possible to harvest eggs from ovaries to being frozen for later use.
What are the risks associated with IVF?
Some risks include:
- It increases the chance of multiple births if more than one embryo is moved to the uterus. A pregnancy with multiple fetuses carries some risks like early labor or lower birth weight compared with a single fetus pregnancy.
- Ovarian induction medications can cause ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome so that ovaries become painful and swollen.
- The aspirating needle used to collect eggs may cause some complications like bleeding, infection, or damage to the bladder.
- Ectopic pregnancy: The rate of ectopic pregnancy for women who use IVF treatment is about 2% to 5%.
- Miscarriage risk: The rate of miscarriage for women who used IVF treatment ranges between 15% to 25 %.
What are the factors which affect the IVF Success Rate?
Before undergoing the treatment, it is essential to understand that several factors can help or prevent getting pregnant. Such as:
In general, younger women have a higher chance of successful pregnancy.
Doctors do not often recommend this treatment for women who are over the age of 43 because their pregnancy chances success is too low because of the impaired egg production or the poor quality of an older woman’s eggs.
The IVF success rate for women under 35 is 40 percent. While the IVF success rate for women over 42 is 4 percent
- Fertility problem type
Some male infertility problems impact the success such as reduced sperm production,
Furthermore, some female problems like uterine abnormalities, or fibroid tumors also reduce the success rate of it. IVF process success depends on ovulation. Ovarian problems may decrease the chances of success.
- Lifestyle method
Women who smoke need to stop it at least three months before starting the In Vitro Fertilization procedure to improve the possibility of having a baby.
The reasons behind that:
- Smokers require higher doses of fertility drugs to catalyze the ovaries.
- Smokers need almost twice as many IVF attempts compared with non-smokers.
- Smokers experience more chances of a failed fertilization procedure.
Overweight or obese can also impact the IVF success rate. Women who suffer from obesity have an increased risk of infertility and miscarriage.
Overweight women also have fewer success rates compared with women of healthy weight. Maintaining an average weight and avoiding alcohol, smoking, and caffeine will improve the chances of having a baby.
- IVF clinic
It is essential to choose the right clinic to ensure increasing the success rate of In Vitro Fertilization. You must select the clinic which has advanced types of equipment, experienced doctors, and qualified medical staff.
At HayatMed, our consultant doctors are highly experienced in the fertility treatment field. They will make all the efforts to increase the success rate of the treatment. Click here for a free consultation.
How do you prepare for the In Vitro Fertilization Treatment Cycle?
Before starting the treatment, you and your partner will meet your doctor for the following purposes:
First, the doctor will:
- Test the ovarian reserve to determine the quality and quantity of the eggs. In addition to testing the levels of some hormones such as Estrogen and Anti-Mullerian.
- Examine the inside uterus lining.
- Conduct a semen analysis.
- Ask for infectious disease tests for you and your partner.
- Explain to you all the risks and the complications associated with the procedure.
Furthermore, you should consider some essential questions and discuss them with your doctor, like the number of embryos which will be transferred, how to handle multiple pregnancies, how to handle the complications and others.
At the end of the consultation, your doctor will decide whether you and your partner are candidates for the In Vitro Fertilization treatment and explain to you all the instructions which you must follow it before starting the procedure.
How is IVF done?
This process consists of several steps. One cycle of IVF takes about two to three weeks, and you may need more than one cycle. These steps include:
First, you’ll start the treatment with hormones that stimulate your ovaries to produce many eggs — instead of the single egg that usually grows each month. There is a need for many eggs because some of them won’t fertilize or not develop after fertilization.
You may need different types of medications like:
- Medications for ovarian induction to stimulate your ovaries.
- Medications for oocyte development that help the eggs mature.
- Medicines for preventing early ovulation.
- Remedies for preparing the uterus lining: On the day of retrieving the eggs or at the time of embryo move, your doctor will recommend taking progesterone supplements to make the uterus lining more receptive to implantation.
Your doctor will determine which medications to use and when you start to use them. Typically, you’ll need between one to two weeks of ovarian induction before your eggs become ready for retrieval.
Then your doctor will likely perform some examinations to determine whether the eggs are available for collection:
- An imaging exam of your ovaries to check the development of eggs.
- Blood tests to check your response to ovarian stimulation medications.
Sometimes, the doctor will cancel the rest cycles before egg retrieval for the following reasons:
- Inappropriate number of eggs developing
- Early ovulation
- Too many developing eggs which lead to a risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
If your cycle is canceled, you need to discuss with your doctor how to promote a better response during future IVF cycles.
During this stage, you’ll be given pain medication. The doctor will retrieve the developed eggs after about 36 hours of the final injection and before the ovulation time.
The retrieval will be done using transvaginal ultrasound aspiration. Your doctor will place an ultrasound probe into the vagina to identify follicles. Then he or she will insert a thin needle into an ultrasound guide to go through the vagina to retrieve the eggs.
Sometimes, it is not possible to access the ovaries through transvaginal ultrasound. In this case, the doctor will use an abdominal ultrasound to guide the needle.
Your doctor will remove the eggs from the follicles by a needle connected to a suction device. Many eggs can be removed through 20 minutes.
Mature eggs will be incubated in a nutritive liquid. Only the mature and healthy eggs will be mixed with sperm to try creating embryos.
The partner will provide a semen sample at the clinic through masturbation on the morning of egg retrieval. Then sperm will be separated from the semen in the laboratory.
Sometimes, other methods of sperm retrieval may be needed, like using a needle or surgical procedure to extract sperm from the testicle directly.
Fertilization can be performed using two common techniques:
- Traditional insemination: In this method, healthy sperm and mature eggs will be mixed and incubated overnight.
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): In this method, a single healthy sperm will be injected directly into each mature egg.
This technique is often used when:
- Semen quality is poor.
- There is a problem with the sperm number.
- If fertilization attempts during previous IVF cycles failed.
Embryo transfer is done usually after two to five days of egg retrieval. This step is usually painless. However, you may feel mild cramping.
Your doctor will insert a tube (catheter) into your vagina through the cervix and into the uterus. Then he or she will attach a syringe to the end of the catheter. This syringe contains one or more embryos hanging in a small amount of fluid.
Next, your doctor will place the embryo or embryos into the uterus by the syringe. If it succeeds, an embryo will implant in the uterus lining about six to ten days after the egg retrieving.
What to expect after Embryo Transfer Procedure?
You can continue your daily activities the following day after the procedure. However, the doctor will ask you to avoid energetic activities.
You may experience some side effects,
- Passing a small amount of fluid.
- Mild cramping
- Mild bloating
- Breast tenderness
If you experience any unfamiliar complications like heavy vaginal bleeding or severe pain, you should call your doctor immediately.
When can you get the IVF treatment result?
About a couple of weeks after egg retrieval, your doctor will test a blood sample to detect whether you’re pregnant or not.
If you’re pregnant, your doctor will pass you to a pregnancy specialist for prenatal care.
If you’re not pregnant, you’ll stop using progesterone and probably get your period within a few days. If you don’t get your period, you should contact your doctor.
If you’re interested in trying another cycle of in vitro fertilization, your doctor will give some advice improving your chances of getting pregnant through the In Vitro Fertilization.
IVF treatment in Turkey
Recently, Turkey’s popularity is growing as a destination for IVF treatment abroad. There are about 150 clinics that provide fertility treatment by high skilled doctors at moderate costs.
Noteworthy that Turkey is different from some other countries, the laws there prevent egg, sperm, or embryo donation. Accordingly, only using the couple’s eggs and sperm is allowed.
However, the cost of IVF treatment in Turkey can be half of that in other countries like the USA, the UK, and the UAE, which is one of the reasons that make Turkey a destination to consider.
HayatMed Clinic, located in Istanbul, Turkey, is one of the approved clinics in the Ministry of Health. We deal with most experienced doctors in Turkey’s infertility treatment field.
Contact us to get more information about our full inclusive fees package for In vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment.
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